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The Cloud refers to a network of remote servers hosted on the internet, used for storing, managing, and processing data, as opposed to using local servers or personal computers. This concept allows for efficient data handling and accessibility from any device with internet connectivity, as the computing and storage occur on servers in data centers rather than on individual devices.

Cloud computing leverages virtualization technology to create virtual machines (VMs), which operate as simulated computers capable of running as if they were separate physical entities. These VMs are sandboxed, meaning they operate independently within the same host machine without interacting or sharing files and applications with each other.

Cloud computing is known for its efficient utilization of hardware resources, ensuring that server capabilities are not underutilized. There are several service models in cloud computing, including Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), and Function-as-a-Service (FaaS).

Different cloud deployment models exist, such as private clouds, dedicated to a single organization; public clouds, operated by external vendors and potentially spanning multiple data centers; hybrid clouds, which blend public and private clouds; and multiclouds, which involve using multiple public clouds. This flexibility makes the cloud a versatile and scalable solution for various computing needs.

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